In addition to the value of parental drive time, the financial cost of operating and maintaining a private passenger vehicle to drive a student to school is calculated using the 2013 AAA estimate for average vehicle operation and maintenance costs per mile, $0.2196 per mile (Automobile Association of America, 2013). This estimate accounts for operation and maintenance related costs, including gasoline, vehicle maintenance, and tire wear. Vehicle acquisition and insurance costs are not included, as these items are fixed costs regardless of vehicle miles traveled.